Truck transportation is always used for some portion of each export shipment. Trucks are used almost exclusively for shipments to Mexico and Canada. For shipments that ultimately use air or sea, trucks transport the animals to the port of embarkation. Trucks used for export shipment must be cleaned and disinfected and a C & D certificate from an accredited veterinarian must be furnished to the port veterinarian.

Semi-trailers can be configured to carry multiple levels of different species. Being able to open and close the openings on the trailers helps provide proper ventilation and temperature under a wide variety weather conditions. Livestock trucks and trailers can be equipped with on-board watering and sprinkler systems to minimize stress on the animals during transportation.





Air Transportation is a proven dependable mode of shipment, with service available from most regions of the U.S. to nearly every part of the world. It is commonly used for transport of livestock. Air transportation provides fast shipments usually 24 hours or less. It is extremely important to make sure that the airports where the animals are loaded and unloaded have the ground support services and equipment to load and unload the aircraft. Equipment for cooling and ventilation must also be available during loading and unloading.

Air freight shipments can be made on scheduled flights which allows shipping less than a full plane load. The freight cost per animal is usually higher than on a charter. It also requires meeting the airlines regular schedule and it may take longer due to routing and transshipment.

Charter Air shipments are the fastest way to ship. They usually cost less per animal than regular air freight and can be scheduled when convenient for exporter and importer. A full load is needed to minimize the freight cost per animal and the importer must be able to accommodate a full plane load of animals at the time of arrival.

Using the best equipment insures customer satisfaction.



Sea transportation for livestock has been used successfully for many years. It opens geographic areas that do not have airports with handling facilities for livestock. Transportation cost are usually less per head than by air. Sea transportation is slow e.g., shipments from the U.S. West coast to Far East ports take 14-26 days. Shipment from U.S. East Coast to Middle East and Mediterranean ports take 14-21 days.

A container ship can transport a small number of animals. Dry freight containers and flat racks can be modified to carry animals. Containers can be loaded at origin and unloaded at destination, thus making handling of animals at docks unnecessary. There are not many containers available that have been modified for livestock shipment.

Charter livestock transport ships are equipped with pens and feeding facilities for animals and are staffed with experienced animal handlers. They can carry a large number of animals, reducing per animal shipping cost. The ship must carry a full load to take advantage of charter rates.